Aquaguard is the Best top Commercial Ro Pant Provider in Pakistan which provides the best quality Ro plant & water filtration system for home and commercial use. We are also the Top Domestic Ro Plant and the Best Ro Plant price in Pakistan. Commercial RO plants are used for the industries and the local commercial use for filtration of water through Reverse osmosis.
COMMERCIAL RO PLANT
SEMI COMMERCIAL RO SYSTEM (DOMESTIC)
20 liters tank, 3 slim line 20 inches cartridges range 200 to 800 gpd. Membrane capacity is equal to its production. Maximum 40 people for 200 gpd and 80 people for 800 gpd. For small offices and small educational institutes.
Low-pressure membrane technology can remove over 99% of contaminants such as dissolved minerals, bacteria, and other impurities; producing water suitable for high-purity applications like boiler feed and ingredient water for food and beverage production. All units are assembled and tested in Aqua guard’s Commercial & Industrial facility in Libertyville, Illinois and shipped skid-mounted for simple installation and easy start-up.
REVERSE OSMOSIS/RO PLANT (DOMESTIC , COMMERCIAL)
Product Water Output : Up to 1500 GPD
Working Pressure : 120 to 175 PSI
Feed Water Type : The output is rated at 25 degree c
Product water type : Up to 95.98 percent salt rejection
Recovery : 40-50 percent
Feed water quality : Up to 1500 ppm TDS
Treated Water : 180-250
Membranes housings : FRP
Salt rejection : 95-98% , Carbon and Sand Filters.
Reverse Osmosis System
- Product water output : Up to 2000 LPH
- Working pressure : 190 to 250 PSI
- Feed water type : The output is rated at 25 degree c
- Product water type : Pure drinking water
- Sand Filter
- Carbon Filter
- Sedimentation filter
- Ultraviolet Panel
- Reverse Osmosis Membrane
WORKING OF COMMERCIAL RO PLANT
Reverse osmosis has been known as a water filtration method since the late 1950s and has been successfully used in water desalination as an effective cleaning process. Today, reverse osmosis is used in water treatment systems for companies, households, or industries in various sectors.
Reverse osmosis water filters have many advantages but also some disadvantages. As a method of water purification for industrial use, its effectiveness is undisputed. However, there is a lot of debate about how healthy it is to drink water treated with reverse osmosis filters. We will now go into more detail about this method of water filtration and its advantages and disadvantages.
What is Reverse osmosis (RO Plant)?
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semi-permeable membrane to remove minerals and ions from water, thereby removing larger particles from drinking water.
Reverse osmosis works by applying pressure to water to force it through a semi-permeable osmosis membrane and filter it.
This semi-permeable membrane allows certain molecules or ions to pass through by diffuse ions. The permeation rate depends on the osmotic pressure, concentration, electrochemical gradient, and temperature of the molecules or solutes on each side, as well as the permeability of the membrane to each solute.
A simple example is a window grille. It lets air molecules through, but not mosquitoes or anything larger than the holes in the membrane.
For example, there are fabrics used to make waterproof clothing that contain a razor-thin film of plastic that has been designed with billions of tiny spores. The pores are large enough to allow water vapor to escape but small enough to prevent liquid water from entering. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of molecules and ions from water, including bacteria, and is used in industrial processes and the production of drinking water. Now it is also used in water purifiers with reverse osmosis systems.
The result of this water purification process is that dissolved substances are retained on the pressure side of the membrane and pure water can pass to the other side.
For the process to be “selective”, the membrane must prevent the passage of large molecules through the pores but allow smaller components of the solution to pass through unhindered.
In the normal process of osmosis, solvent moves naturally through a membrane from an area of low solute concentration (high water potential) to an area of high solute concentration (low water potential). Reverse osmosis works on a diffusion mechanism, so the efficiency of the separation depends on the concentration of the solute, the pressure, and the flow rate of the water. Reverse osmosis is best known for its use in purifying drinking water from seawater by removing salt and other substances from water molecules.
The Process Of RO Plant
To purify water by reverse osmosis, the reverse process of conventional osmosis must be carried out.
Osmosis is a natural phenomenon and one of the most important processes in nature.
It is a process where a less concentrated saline solution tends to migrate to where a more concentrated saline solution is present. Examples of osmosis can be when plant roots absorb water from the soil or our kidneys absorb water from our blood.
For example, if you had a tank of low-salinity water and a tank of high-salinity water, and those tanks were separated by a semi-permeable membrane, the water with the lower salt concentration would start moving toward the tank with the highest salt concentration, itself to move.
Although osmosis occurs naturally without the need for additional energy, pressure must be applied to the more saline solution to reverse the osmotic process.
This means that the water must be “pushed” through the reverse osmosis membrane by applying a pressure greater than the natural osmotic pressure to desalinate, demineralize and remove ions from the water for the pure water to pass through the membrane retains most of the water.
When pressure is applied to the concentrated solution, the water molecules are forced through the semi-permeable membrane, preventing the passage of impurities and minerals contained in the water.
How does Reverse osmosis work?
For the reverse osmosis process to work, a pump must be used to increase the pressure on the side of the membrane where the water to be treated is located, ie the water with the highest concentration of salts or impurities.
The function of the pump is to force water through the semi-permeable osmotic membrane so that approximately 95% to 99% of the dissolved salts in the wastewater stream are discharged to the drain.
The required pressure depends on the salt concentration in the water feeding the system. The higher the concentration, the more pressure is needed to overcome osmotic pressure.
The result of the reverse osmosis filtration is 2 jets of water. The first stream is filtered water (known as permeate water); the other stream is the water stream with the concentrated contaminants that did not pass through the RO membrane and is known as the waste (or concentrated) stream.
When the feed water flows through the reverse osmosis membrane under pressure, the salts and other contaminants that could not pass are removed through the waste stream, which as mentioned is discharged through the drain.
The water that flows through the reverse osmosis membrane is called permeate or product water and generally contains about 95% to 99% dissolved salts. It is important to understand that a reverse osmosis system uses cross filtration rather than standard filtration and contaminants become trapped in the filter media.
With cross filtration, the solution passes through the filter or passes through the filter with two exits: the filtered water goes on one side and the contaminated water on the other.
Which pollutants does RO Plant remove from the water?
RO Plant can remove up to 99% of dissolved salts (ions), particles, colloids, organic compounds, bacteria, and pyrogens from the water entering the system & #40; although a reverse osmosis system may not remove 100% of bacteria and viruses).
A reverse osmosis membrane rejects contaminants due to its size and charge. Any contaminant with a molecular weight greater than 200 is likely to be rejected by a properly functioning reverse osmosis system, and by comparison, a water molecule has a molecular weight of 18 and 41.
The higher the ionic charge of the contaminant, most likely it will not pass through the membrane.
For example, a sodium ion has a single (monovalent) charge and will not be repelled by the RO membrane like calcium, which has two charges. This is also why a reverse osmosis system does not remove gases like CO2 very well because they are not highly ionized (charged) in solution and have a very low molecular weight.
Because a reverse osmosis system does not remove gases, the pH of the permeate water may be slightly lower than normal depending on the amount of carbon dioxide in the water as CO2 is converted to carbonic acid.
Reverse osmosis is highly effective in treating brackish water, surface water, and groundwater for both large and small flow applications.
Examples of industries using reverse osmosis are the pharmaceutical industry, industries using boiler feed water, the food and beverage industry, the metal refining industry, and the semiconductor industry, to name a few.
Pre-treatment of a reverse osmosis system
As mentioned above, a reverse osmosis system should not be relied on to remove 100% of viruses and bacteria.
As with UV water purification systems, proper pretreatment with mechanical or chemical filters is essential before the water passes through the osmosis system to prevent fouling of the membrane, leading to premature failure of the reverse osmosis membrane.
Below you will find an overview of the most common problems with a reverse osmosis system that can be traced back to improper water pretreatment.
Clogging: Occurs when contaminants build up on the membrane surface and clog the membrane. This can happen when the water in the public water supply is heavily contaminated. In this case, there are many impurities that are invisible to the human eye and harmless to our body, but large enough to quickly clog a reverse osmosis system.
Bacteria is one of the most common membrane saturation problems because the reverse osmosis membranes used today cannot withstand the use of disinfectants such as chlorine, allowing microorganisms to thrive and multiply on the membrane surface. They produce biofilms that cover the membrane surface and cause severe fouling.
Calcification: When certain dissolved inorganic compounds become more concentrated, they can deposit on the membrane. More fouling can result in system pressure drop, higher salt passage (less salt rejection), low permeate flow, and lower permeate water quality. An example of a common compound that tends to foul a reverse osmosis membrane is calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Chemical attack: Modern membranes consist of a thin film that does not tolerate chlorine and chloramines. Oxidants such as chlorine “burn out” the holes in the membrane pores and can cause irreparable damage. The result of the chemical attack on a reverse osmosis membrane is increased permeate flux and increased passage of contaminants (lower quality permeate water).
Since modern membranes cannot withstand the use of disinfectants such as chlorine, it is very easy for microorganisms to grow on reverse osmosis membranes.
Mechanical Damage: Part of the water pretreatment program should include pre-and post-procedure piping and operation of the reverse osmosis system. “Hard starts” can lead to mechanical damage to the membranes. If the backpressure in the reverse osmosis system is too high, mechanical damage to the membranes can also occur.
This can be avoided by using variable frequency drive motors to start high-pressure pumps and installing check valves and/or pressure relief valves to prevent excessive back pressure in the RO installation which can cause permanent diaphragm damage.
Pre-Reverse Osmosis Water Treatments
Below are some pre-treatment solutions for systems with reverse osmosis filters that can help minimize fouling and chemical attack.
Multimedia Filter (MMF)
media filters are designed to filter particles from water through various layers of filter media, ranging from the coarsest to the finest.
This design results in larger particles being trapped in the upper layers and smaller particles being trapped in the lower layers. This design maximizes the ability to capture particles of sand, oxides, organic matter, and sediment generally of 1015 microns or larger.
A multi-media filter is used to prevent contamination of the reverse osmosis system. This filter usually consists of three layers of different materials, the most common of which are anthracite, sand, and garnet, with a supporting layer of gravel at the bottom.
These media are used due to differences in size and density. Charcoal, which is larger (but lighter), goes on top, and garnet, which is heavier (but smaller), stays on the bottom.
When equipped with a coagulator (which groups the smallest particles into particles large enough to be filtered), a multi-media filter can remove particles as small as 510 microns. For comparison: the width of a human hair is about 50 microns.
It is important to place a 5-micron cartridge filter immediately after the media filter in case the MMF underflow fails. This prevents the MMF filter from damaging the pump and contaminating the RO system.
Microfiltration (MF) effectively removes colloidal and bacterial material and has a pore size of only 0.110 µm. Microfiltration is helpful in reducing the risk of contamination of a reverse osmosis system.
Cone configuration may vary by manufacturer, but the most commonly used is the “hollow fiber” type. Typically, water is pumped from the outside of the fibers and clean water is collected from the inside of the fibers. Microfiltration membranes used in drinking water treatment systems typically operate with a “dead end” flow.
With dead-end flow, all water fed to the membrane is filtered through the membrane. A filter cake forms, which must be regularly rinsed off the membrane surface. Recovery rates are typically over 90% with low turbidity and relatively high-quality raw materials.
Anticipants and Attack Inhibitors
As the name suggests, anticipants and scale inhibitors are chemicals that can be added to the feed water before a reverse osmosis system to reduce the possibility of fouling the reverse osmosis system membrane. Anticipants and scale inhibitors increase the solubility limits of problematic inorganic compounds. By increasing the solubility limits, you can concentrate the salts more than is otherwise possible and thus achieve a higher recovery rate and work with a higher concentration factor.
Anticipants and Scale Inhibitors work by preventing the formation of scale and crystal growth. The choice of the scale or scale inhibitor to be used and the correct dosage depending on the chemical composition of the feed water and the design of the reverse osmosis system.
Ion Exchange Softener
A water softener can be used to prevent lime scale build-up in a reverse osmosis system. This plasticizer works by exchanging calcium ions for non-calcium ions.
As with an MMF unit, it is important to place a 5-micron cartridge filter immediately after the water softener in case the softener bottom drain fails.
Sodium Bisulfite (SBS) Injection
Sodium Bisulfite, a reducing agent, can be added to the water stream before a reverse osmosis filtration system because, when dosed correctly, it can remove residual chlorine.
Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)
Granular Activated Carbon is used to remove organic compounds and sanitizer residues (such as chlorine and chloramines) from water. Granulated activated carbon filters are made from charcoal, walnut shells, or wood.
Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines through a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from the activated carbon surface to residual chlorine or chloramines, which end up as chloride ions and lose their oxidizing properties.
The disadvantage of using an activated carbon filter before the reverse osmosis system is that chlorine is quickly removed at the top of the bed leaving the rest of the activated carbon bed with no biocide to kill microorganisms.
Cleaning the reverse osmosis membrane
RO Plant membranes must be cleaned 1 to 4 times a year, depending on the quality of the water to be treated. Typically, when the pressure drops or the salt passage increases by 15%, it is time to clean the membranes.
The same applies if the permeate flow drops by 15%.To clean the reverse osmosis membrane, high and low pH cleaning agents are needed to remove contaminants from the membrane. Scale is treated with a low pH detergent and organics and colloids are treated with a high pH detergent.
Cleaning reverse osmosis membranes are not just about using the right chemicals.
There are other factors that come into play such as B. Water flow rates, water temperature, and quality, well-designed and sized cleaning kits, and many other factors that must be considered by trained technical personnel to properly clean the RO membranes.
Benefits of Reverse Osmosis Water Filtration
- Reverse osmosis water filters remove many bacteria and pathogens from tap water. Pathogenic bacteria such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium can be effectively filtered out, reducing the risk of gastrointestinal and other diseases related to these pathogens and bacteria.
- also removes chlorine taste and odor; Tap water is not only safer, but it also tastes better.
- As with Water Station water dispensers, a reverse osmosis water filter saves you money by eliminating the need for water jugs.
- Reverse osmosis systems take up little space.
- Because reverse osmosis water filters produce ultrapure water, food cooked with this water tastes better.
Is it healthy to drink demineralized water?
As we have already seen, reverse osmosis water purification removes the minerals that the water naturally contains. In this sense, it is important to point out that the World Health Organization (WHO) has conducted a study on the risks associated with the consumption of demineralized water. Some of the WHO study findings include:
- Directly affects intestinal mucosa, metabolism, mineral homeostasis, and other bodily functions.
- We sacrifice the absorption of healthy minerals such as calcium and magnesium that occur naturally in water.
- Low intake of other essential elements and trace elements.
- Loss of calcium, magnesium, and other essential elements in ready meals.
- Possible increased intake of toxic metals from food.
Commercial Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semi permeable membrane to remove larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of molecules and ions from solutions, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be “selective”, this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely. Reverse osmosis involves diffusion, making the process dependent on pressure, flow rate, and other conditions. Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other effluent materials from the water molecules.